Culinary beef is the most valued type of meat of the three major types of meat produced and consumed around the world, both by the consumers in the countries with the highest levels of consumption (USA, Argentina, Australia), and those from countries with well-known culinary traditions (France, Italy, Spain).
The concept of culinary beef encompasses meat obtained from young bovine animals:
- 7-10 weeks – veal,
- 10-12 months – young beef,
- bovine animals not over 30 months of age – beef.
The meat of older animals, often after a period of dairy utilization, contains a relatively high content of connective tissue in the form of tendons and membranes (mostly perimysium tissue) and fat – the so-called process meat, should be raw material for the production of processed meat of fine or medium shredded blanched sausages.
The culinary quality of beef is a result of a number of features of which the most important for the purchase is the constitution of meat of the individual tissues: muscle, connective, fat and also the color of the meat. During the meal, consumers pay close attention to the crispness
and juice, and the overall flavor of the meat.
BEEF HALF-CARCASS DIAGRAM
– bone-in meat, thin layers of the muscles of the neck, interspersed with perimysium, tendons and localized fat. Suitable for the preparation of soups and pastries.
– bone-in meat, thin layer of flaccid muscles of the neck, interspersed with perimysium, tendons, localized fat. It can be used to cook soups and goulash.
3. FORE RIB
– bone-in meat, part of the longissimus muscle, interspersed with perimysium and localized fat. Suitable for piece of meat, and for the preparation of soups.
– bone-in meat, part of the pectoral muscles with fat covering, interspersed with perimysium and localized fat. Useful for the preparation of piece of meat and for soups.
– bone-in meat, among others, part of the longissimus muscle with fat layer, interspersed with perimysium and localized fat. It is used to prepare roast beef, beef steak, stew, zrazy and a piece of meat.
6. SHOULDER BLADE
– boneless meat with thick and thin muscle layers, interspersed with perimysium, tendons and localized fat. Suitable for the preparation of soups and goulash.
– bone-in meat, part of the longissimus muscle, and the upper part of the abdominal oblique muscle. Suitable for the preparation of rump roast, roast beef and a piece of meat.
8. SHANK FORE AND HIND
– bone-in meat, fine muscles densely interspersed with perimysium, thick fasciae and tendons. Suitable for a piece of meat and to the preparation of goulash.
– boneless meat, psoas muscle and a part of the iliacus muscle (tenderloin head) with the surrounding perimysium tissue. Suitable for the preparation of beef steak, fillets, zrazy, brisol, tartar steak, boeuf Strogonow and shashlik.
– bone-in meat, among others, part of the longissimus muscle with fat layer, interspersed with perimysium and localized fat. Suitable for piece of meat, and for the preparation of soups.
– boneless meat, perimysium. Consists of top round steak, bottom round roast, sirloin and sacrum. The two round parts are suitable for the preparation of zrazy, roasts, stews, roulades, as well as for curing (sirloin) and the production of smoked meats. MYSZKA is spent for the preparation of roast.
12. FLANK STEAK
– bone-in meat, thin abdominal muscles with perimysium and localized fat. Ideal for soups, goulash and minced meat dishes.
13. BEEF TAIL
– bone-in meat, caudal vertebrae with a thin muscle layer. Good for the preparation of soups and ragouts.
Cattle can be in essence subdivided into 3 main commercial types: dairy, beef and combined. The dairy type includes breeds with relatively slow growth rates and late in puberty, with the characteristic body frame similar to that of a triangle. The muscle mass is poorly developed (especially on the rounds), and the slaughter yield is approximately 50%. Of more than 1.4 billion head of cattle being reared in the world, over 1 billion is maintained solely for the production of meat. The best-known breeds are the Holstein-Frisian (also called H-F) and the Jersey.
Improvement of slaughter yield is achieved by commercial crossbreeding with the bulls of meat breeds. Calves born out of these matings are used as beef cattle. The beef cattle includes early puberty breeds with high weight gain increments. The fore part of the body is heavily muscular, and the animal, seen from the side is shaped like a rectangle. Slaughter yield can be as high as 70%. There are more than 100 beef cattle breeds registered in the world, of which the most popular are: the French – Limousin and Charolaise, the English – Hereford and Angus, the Italian – Piemontese.
The combined type denotes cattle similar in the body build to the beef type cattle. The most famous breeds are Simmental, Braunvieh. Beef production uses two distinct systems, different genetically and in the applied technology of rearing. In countries specializing in the production of beef meat, the beef cattle breeds are used (maintained in the purity of the breed) or different crossbreeds with the selection activities focusing on genes determining such factors as higher growth rate, better use of the feed and a better quality of the carcass (slaughter yield and better muscular development). The calves are separated from their mothers (weaning) at the age of 7-9 months at the body weight of 200-350 kg, and later are fattened in the so-called "bucata houses" to the body weight of 500-700 kg.